In 1913, for the sake of Eva’s health, Esther and Eva moved from smoggy Manchester to leafy Hamstead.
The couple were prominent pacifists during the First World War, working for the International Committee of Women for Permanent Peace.
“There are no ‘men’ or ‘women’ in Urania”
In 1916, along with transwoman Irene Clyde, they founded Urania, a privately circulated journal which expressed their pioneering views on gender and sexuality. The term Urania had been coined in the 1800s, and meant homosexual or third gender.
Published six times a year, and with 250 subscribers, the journal contained clippings of articles from national and international press as well as original pieces.
Content included articles on cross-dressing; discussions of outrageous (for the time) themes such as why women shouldn’t marry; why we should live in a genderless society (the journal’s mission statement was “There are no ‘men’ or ‘women’ in Urania); and how passionate lesbian relationships are a great alternative to marriage.